Laundry

Clothing and linen that have just been laundered or that require washing. A room in a home, hotel, or other establishment where laundry and ironing are available for clothing and linen.

Laundry

Laundry

In addition to washing garments and other textiles, laundry also, more broadly, includes drying and ironing them. Since laundry has been a part of human history since people first started wearing clothes, many academic fields are interested in the ways that various cultures have addressed this basic human need.

Traditionally, laundry work has been heavily gendered, with women (formerly known as laundresses or washerwomen) carrying out the majority of the work. Mechanized laundry solutions, such as the washing machine and, subsequently, the tumble dryer, were progressively introduced during the Industrial Revolution. Similar to cooking and child care, laundry is still performed both at home and by businesses that are not attached to homes.[/2]

The term “laundry” can describe the clothes themselves or where the cleaning takes place. Laundry rooms are common in individual homes; they serve a variety of purposes, not just clothes washing. An apartment complex or residence hall for students might have a communal laundry area called a tvattstuga. A self-service laundry (also known as a launderette in British English or a laundromat in North American English) is a stand-alone business.

History

Initially, laundry was done in watercourses, allowing the water to remove any materials that might have caused odors or stains. This is still how laundry is done in rural areas of developing nations. The laundry was rubbed, twisted, or slapped against flat rocks because agitation helps remove the dirt. This surface is known by the name “beetling stone,” which is associated with the linen-producing process of beetling; a battling block is the name given to a wooden substitute. A wooden tool called a washing paddle, battling stick, bat, beetle, or club was used to beat out the dirt. Portable rub boards and eventually corrugated glass or metal washboards manufactured in factories gradually replaced wooden or stone scrubbing surfaces placed close to a water source.

After washing, the garments were twisted to extract the majority of the water and wrung out. After that, they were either spread out on spotless grass, bushes, or trees, or hung up on clotheslines or poles to air dry.

Washhouses

Laundry was frequently done in public places prior to the invention of the washing machine.

Wealthy European villages constructed washhouses, sometimes referred to as livors in French. Water was fed into a structure, possibly just a roof without any walls, by channeling it from a stream or spring. This washhouse typically had two basins, one for washing and the other for rinsing, with water running continuously through them. It also had a stone lip that was angled toward the water, which was used to beat wet laundry. These amenities offered greater comfort and convenience compared to doing laundry in a watercourse. While some people had washbasins on the ground, others had them at waist height. There was some protection for the money launderers.

from rain, and they traveled less because the amenities were typically close by in the village or on the outskirts of a town. All families had access to these public facilities, which were typically utilized by the entire village. Numerous of these village washhouses remain intact, being historic buildings devoid of any clear contemporary function.

Women were assigned to do the laundry, and they were responsible for washing every family member’s clothes. Laundresses, or washerwomen, collected other people’s laundry and charged by the piece. Washhouses thus became a sort of institution or gathering place and, for many women, an obligatory stop in their weekly routine. It was a ladies-only area where they could talk about problems or just hang out (think of the village pump idea). In fact,

The Catalan expression “fer safareig” (literally, “to do the laundry”), which refers to gossiping, reflects this custom.

Public restrooms were also found in European cities. The goal of the city authorities was to provide laundry facilities to the less fortunate citizens who would not otherwise be able to wash their clothes. These amenities were occasionally mixed with public baths; in Britain, for instance, there are baths and wash houses. Promoting hygiene was intended to lessen the likelihood of epidemics breaking out.

The term “wash copper” refers to large metal cauldrons that were occasionally filled with fresh water and heated over a fire. The reason for this is that hot or boiling water is more efficient at removing dirt than cold water. You could use a pot to stir up clothing in a bath.(5) “A wooden stick or mallet with an attached cluster of legs or pegs” is a related tool known as a washing dolly, which is used to move the cloth through the water.

Chinese laundries in North America

Laundry technology was completely changed by the Industrial Revolution. In her history of the Great Exhibition of 1851, Christina Hardyment makes the case that women’s liberation was a result of the advancement of domestic machinery.(7)

The nineteenth-century invention of the mangle, also known as the “wringer” in American English, consisted of two long rollers mounted in a frame and turned by a crank.

After soaking wet clothes, a laundry worker compressed the fabric and drained the extra water by turning it through a mangle. Mangling took a lot less time than twisting the hands. It was a cloth pressing and smoothing machine, a variation on the box mangle.

In the meantime, laborious hand rubbing against a washboard was replaced by a variety of hand-operated washing machines created by 19th-century inventors, further automating the laundry process. Most required changing paddles inside a tub with a handle. Then, an electrically powered agitator was employed in certain early 20th-century devices. A lot of these washing machines were just a tub with a hand-operated mangle on top that was supported by legs. Eventually, an electrically powered mangle was added, and it was replaced with a double tub that had holes in it that allowed water to spin out of it in a cycle.

Clothes dryers were used to automate the drying process for laundry. Dryers, instead of blowing water through perforated tubing, blasted hot air.

North American Chinese laundry services

This is where “Chinese laundry” reroutes. See Chinese laundry (disambiguation) for additional uses.

Also see Hopkins v. Yick Wo

Laundry workers were a common occupation for Chinese immigrants to the United States and Canada in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Contradiction: The majority of desirable careers were closed off to Chinese immigrants due to a lack of capital and English language proficiency. One in four ethnic Chinese men in the United States worked in laundry around 1900, putting in 10 to 16 hours a day on average.(8)In [9]

At the start of the Great Depression, there were an estimated 3,550 Chinese laundries operating in New York City. The Board of Aldermen of the city passed a law in 1933 that was obviously meant to force the Chinese out of the industry. It restricted laundry ownership to Americans, among other things. The Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance (CHLA), an openly leftist organization, was formed as a result of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association’s futile attempts to block this. CHLA successfully challenged this law’s provision, allowing Chinese laundry workers. to protect their sources of income.(8) The CHLA continued to operate as a more inclusive civil rights organization, but after being singled out by the FBI for the Second Red Scare (1947–1957), its membership drastically decreased.

Washing machines and other devices

Laundry technology was completely changed by the Industrial Revolution. In her history of the Great Exhibition of 1851, Christina Hardyment makes the case that women’s liberation was a result of the advancement of domestic machinery.(7)

The nineteenth-century invention of the mangle, also known as the “wringer” in American English, consisted of two long rollers mounted in a frame and turned by a crank. After soaking wet clothes, a laundry worker compressed the fabric and drained the extra water by turning it through a mangle. Mangling took a lot less time than twisting the hands. It was a cloth pressing and smoothing machine, a variation on the box mangle.

In the meantime, laborious hand rubbing against a washboard was replaced by a variety of hand-operated washing machines created by 19th-century inventors, further automating the laundry process. Most required changing paddles inside a tub with a handle. Then, an electrically powered agitator was employed in certain early 20th-century devices. A lot of these washing machines were just a tub with a hand-operated mangle on top that was supported by legs. Eventually, an electrically powered mangle was added, and it was replaced with a double tub that had holes in it that allowed water to spin out of it in a cycle.

Clothes dryers were used to automate the drying process for laundry. Dryers, instead of blowing water through perforated tubing, blasted hot air.

South Africa

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_AfricaZulu men took up the chore of cleaning the clothing of Europeans, including British and Boer, between 1850 and 1910. Laundering reminded me of the high-status and well-paying Zulu men’s specialized trade of hide-dressing, known as izinyanga. To safeguard their wages and working conditions, they set up a guild structure, akin to a union, and over time they developed into “one, if not indeed the most, powerful group of African workmen in nineteenth-century Natal.”10]

India

Laundry was traditionally performed by men in India. A washerman was referred to as a dhobiwallah, and their caste group was named after them.

Generally speaking, a laundry facility is referred to as a “dhobi ghat.” As a result, places where they work or have worked have names like Mahalaxmi Dhobi Ghat in Mumbai, Dhoby Ghaut in Singapore, and Dhobi Ghaut in Penang, Malaysia.

Philippines

Up until the early 1980s, when the nation’s cost of washing machines decreased. In the Philippines, doing laundry by hand was a major task that was typically given to women. A labandera was a professional laundry worker.[citation

Ancient Rome

Fullones, singular fullo, were the workers in ancient Rome who cleaned the cloth (cf. fulling, a wool-making process, and Fuller’s earth, used to clean). Small tubs known as treading or filling stalls, which were surrounded by low walls, were used to treat clothes. Water and a combination of alkaline chemicals (sometimes including urine) were poured into the tub. The fuller, using a method called posting elsewhere, stood in the tub and trampled the cloth. Applying the chemical agents to the cloth allowed them to do their job of resolving greases and fats, which was the goal of this treatment. These stalls are used to identify fullonicae in the archaeological remains because they are so typical of these workshops.

Laundry processes

Washing (often with water that contains chemicals or detergents), agitation, rinsing, drying, pressing (ironing), and folding are the steps involved in laundry. In order to maximize the activity of any chemicals used and the solubility of stains, washing will occasionally be done at a temperature higher than room temperature. High temperatures also kill any potential microorganisms [citation needed] that may be present on the fabric. To avoid shrinking, it is recommended to wash cotton at a lower temperature. There are a lot of expert laundry services available on the market, with varying price points.

Although agitation aids in the removal of dirt, which is typically mobilized by surfactants, the stagnant core’ of the fibers themselves sees almost no flow because of the tiny pores in the fibers. The strands are Nevertheless, during the rinsing process, dirt is quickly removed by diffusiophoresis, which pulls dirt into the clean water.[1]

Chemicals

The compounds in soaproot or yucca root, which Native American tribes use, or the ash lye (typically sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide), which was once widely used for soaking laundry in Europe, are just two examples of the various chemicals that can be used to increase the solvent power of water. An old and widely used laundry tool is soap, a mixture of fat and lye. Rather than using more conventional soap, modern washing machines usually use synthetic powdered or liquid detergent.

Cleaning or dry cleaning

Any method that employs a chemical solvent other than water is referred to as dry cleaning.[12] Tetrachloroethylene, also known as perchloroethylene and referred to as “perc” in the industry, is the usual solvent used.13][14] It can eliminate labor-intensive hand washing and is used to clean delicate fabrics that cannot tolerate the rough and tumble of a washing machine and clothes dryer.

Shared laundry rooms

Laundry rooms are common in apartment buildings and dorms where residents share washing machines and dryers in some parts of the world, including North America. The machines are often programmed to only operate when coins are inserted into coin slots.

Apartment complexes with laundry rooms are unusual elsewhere in the world, especially in Europe, where each unit might have its own washing machine. Without access to a laundry room or a machine at home, people are forced to wash their clothes by hand, use a commercial self-service laundry facility (laundromat, laundrette), or go to a laundry shop like 5àsec.

Right to dry movement

The “right to dry” movement was sparked by protests against local laws in some American communities that prohibit residents from hanging clothes outside to dry them. In the United States, a lot of homeowner associations and other communities forbid people from using a clothesline outside or restrict its use to areas that are hidden from view from the street or specific times of the day. On the other hand, some communities have laws that specifically forbid using clotheslines. Given the increased greenhouse gas emissions produced by some types of electrical power generation required to power electric clothes dryers—since dryers can account for a sizeable portion of a home’s total energy usage—some organizations have been fighting against legislation that forbids line-drying clothing in public areas.

The State of Florida, also known as “the Sunshine State,” is the only state to specifically guarantee the freedom to dry, despite solar rights laws having been passed in Utah and Hawaii.[Reference required] A Florida statute explicitly states: “No deed restrictions, covenants, or similar binding agreements running with the land shall prohibit or have the effect of prohibiting solar collectors, clotheslines, or other energy-efficient equipment made of renewable materials from being placed on structures constructed on lots or parcels subject to covenants, deed restrictions, or legally enforceable agreements. No other state exists in [15] that has laws with such clarity.[Reference required] In 1999, Vermont attempted to pass a “Right to Dry” bill, but the Senate Natural Resources & Energy Committee killed it. Senator Dick McCormack introduced a voluntary energy conservation bill in 2007 that contains the language. Laws enabling A Colorado law passed in 2008 allowed thousands of American families to begin using clotheslines in areas where they had previously been prohibited. States including Connecticut, Hawaii, Maryland, Maine, New Hampshire, Nebraska, Oregon, Virginia, and Vermont discussed clothing legislation in 2009.

Canada has implemented similar policies, especially in the province of Ontario.

same problems

Clothes can accidentally shrink when used by inexperienced users of modern laundry machines, especially when heat is applied. This is because heat and agitation cause the scales on the fibers to stick together in wool clothing. Other textiles, such as cotton, can shrink slightly when heated (though not as much as wool), because their fibers are stretched mechanically during production. Certain clothing items are “pre-shrunk” to prevent this issue.In [16]

Color bleeding from dyed items onto white or light-colored ones is another frequent issue. Whites and colored items should be washed separately, according to many laundry guides.(17) To minimize this issue, which is mitigated by using cold water and doing multiple washes, only similar colors are occasionally washed together. This color blending is occasionally viewed as a selling point, as on madras fabric.

Many clothing items have laundry symbols to assist customers in avoiding these issues.

Laundry synthetic fibers may also be a source of microplastic contamination.18]

Etymology

The Middle English word laundry, lavender comes from the Old French word lavanderie from lavandier.

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